The History of Resurvey in the State PDF Print E-mail
The History of Resurvey in the State
1. The Kerala State consists of old Travancore State, Malabar and Kasargod areas of old Madras State and old Cochin State. The original survey of former Travancore State was conducted during the period 1883-1912 and that of Cochin area during the period 1899-1909. After that no resurvey has been conducted in these areas. In Malabar areas, though a resurvey was conducted during 1923-28, it was found necessary that the sketches in the field measurements books and other survey records had to be completely re-prepared afresh or a resurvey conducted. This is mainly due to want of systematic maintenance of land records and also due to insertions of numerous sub division in the original measurement sketches. Arrears had also accumulated in carrying out mutations in land records. With the introduction of metric system in land records, necessity for re-preparation of land record under that system also arose. Re-survey of the State and preparation of land records based on the existing limits of occupations would also facilitate the speedy implementation of land records and collection of agricultural statistics. Considering all these aspects, it was decided that a Resurvey of the entire State would be attempted. Accordingly the scheme "Re-survey of the State" was sanctioned in G.O. No. 78l/65/ RD dated 6-10-1965 and is being implemented from 1966-67.
2. To start with 2 resurvey parties were employed and gradually the number of resurvey parties was increased. Now there are 15 resurvey parties (including 3 ranges) and 3 mapping unit offices to attend the resurvey of the State and preparation of resurvey records. The total area for resurvey in the State in 32,510 Sq.Kms: Altogether about 1099 Surveyors, 950 Draftsmen with necessary supervisory staff are employed in the resurvey and the preparation of resurvey records. The physically achievement and the expenditure incurred from the inception of the scheme up to the end of 6th plan is as follows:
The present programme is to complete the resurvey of the entire State by 1990. During the sixth five year plan, about 400 surveyors and 80 Draftsman with the supervisory staff sanctioned for resurvey scheme was diverted for the work connected with the translation of resurvey records into land records. Apart this, about 300 posts of Surveyors and 250 posts of Draftsmen were also vacant due to non receipt of advice list from the Kerala Public Service Commission. Now the Public Service Commission has advised the candidates and the vacant posts are being filled up as and when the candidates acquire the pre-requisite technical qualification of Chain Survey. At this rate it is expected that the entire vacancies of 300 surveyors and 250 Draftsmen apart the vacancies consequent on the diversion of staff for land record work would be filled up by the end of December 1985.
3. Of the total extent 32510 Sqr. Kms. for Resurvey in the State an extent of 20038 Sqr. Kms. under field work and 12663 sqr. Kms. under office work has been completed at a total cost of Rs. 3,869.87 lakhs at the end of March 1985. Of the 61 taluks in the State, Resurvey field work has been completed in 18 taluks while the work is in progress in another 28 taluks. To offset the shortage occurred during sixth plan period due to non employment of full-compliment of staff (for want of advise from Public Service Commission and diversion of staff for land records work), it is necessary to employ 3 more resurvey parties during the 7th plan period so as to complete the work by the target date of 1990. Accordingly proposals for the 7th plan have been sent to Government for a total amount of Rs.4450 lakhs. Though a sum of Rs. 700 lakhs was proposed for the year 1985-86, a sum of Rs.500/- lakhs alone has been provided in the budget for 1985-86. Further, though provision has been proposed in the budget for 1985-86 for the continuance of the existing staff, no provision has been made towards "other charges" (meant for meeting the cost of survey stones and charges for the employment of labourers for measurement works) and traveling expenses of the staff. The amount provided in the budget for 1985-56 under office expenses, Rent Rates and Taxes etc. is also inadequate. Apart this employment of additional Survey Party is necessary from this year itself for completing the Re-survey by 1990. 1(}2 villages and resurvey records have been finaised in respect of 400 villages after disposing the land complaints. On an average about 5000 - 7000 land complaints are received in each village in the Southern Districts of the State while the average com¬plaints received in a village in the Northern District averages from 100° -. 1500. So far decision has been taken in about 30,000 complaints and that final decision is pending in about 70,000 complaints.
4. The following are the basic records prepared on completion of Resurvey of a village / Panchayat:
(I) Field measurement sketches showing the measurements of each holding including Government lands with necessary data to rely the boundary on ground as and when required. The scale of the sketch is 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 and 1/5000 according to the extent of holding.
(2) Land register/Field register showing the name of present land holder extent, classification, nature of previous land holder, corresponding old survey /sub division number, details of main crops raised in the land etc.
(3) The combined map of each block of about 1000 hectares in extent formed within Village / Panchayat following natural boundaries as for as possible, thus 3 Revenue Village may consists of 1 or more of such blocks (scale 1/5000).
The Resurvey is done under the provisions of the Survey and Boundaries Act (Act 37 of 1961). According to the provisions in the Act, individual notices are to be issued to the land holders and their objections, if any, heard and disposed of before the survey records are finalised. It was found on practice that the service of individual notices is a time consuming and laborious process, employing a large number of staff without any resultant advantage. Therefore the Board of Revenue suggested to amend the Survey and Boundaries Act as early in 1971 dispensing with the issue of individual notices. After detailed correspondence between Government and Board of Revenue for 1971-1983 and discussions at various levels, an ordinance amending section 9(2) of Survey and Boundaries Act was issued by the Government in November 1983. Accord¬ing to the ordinance, the decision under section 9(2) of the Act is to be published in 2 leading local dailies, the records will be exhibited at a public place like Village /Panchayat office etc. and the parties who are interested in the boundaries may verify the Re-survey records and prefer complaints about the survey, if they arc aggrieved. These complaints are heard and disposed of by the officers of Survey & Land Records Department not below the rank of Superintendents before the Resurvey Records are finalised and noti¬fied under section 13 of the Act. So far 9(2) notices were published in respect of about 102 villages and resurvey records have been finalised in respect of 40 villages after disposing the land complaints. On an average about 5000 - 7000 land complaints are received in each village in the Southern Districts of the State while the average com¬plaints received in a village in the Northern District averages from 1000 to 1500. So far decision has been taken in about 30,000 complaints and that final decision is pending in about 70,000 complaints.
5. Generally a Resurvey is followed by a re-settlement. Since basic tax has been introduced in Kerala State, no further settlement of land revenue seems necessary. The other part of the settlement work i.e. preparation of revenue registers like Basic tax, Thandaper etc. from whom land revenue is to be collected after conducting field verifica¬tion is being done by a process called "translation of resurvey records into land records". Since some of the resurvey records prepared date back to the period 1966-67, it has become necessary to update this resurvey records after conducting field verification. For attending this work 40 Special Tahsildars have been employed in 8 taluks (6 districts) since 1980. 400 Surveyors, 80 Draftsman, 40 Head Surveyor and 8 Head Draftsman from the resurvey parties have been diverted to work under the Special Tahsildars, for updating the re-survey records and preparation of land records. The equivalent posts in the resurvey scheme are kept vacant as per Government orders. From the inspection of this scheme, resurvey records of 170 villages have been handed over to the Special Tahsildars and they have completed the work in all respects only in about 100 Villages. The idea when the scheme was introduced was that each unit could complete the preparation of records of one Village within a period of 8 -1 0 months, but due to the non availability of village officers for preparation of registers, each unit on an average has completed only 2 - 3 villages so far. This item of work at district level is done under the supervision of District Collectors and the work at State level is reviewed by the Additional Secretary, Board of Revenue (L.R).
6. In respect of the Villages where re-survey was done, recently the resurvey records need not be updated since it generally depict the present state of things on ground. In such cases when the resurvey records are finalised, the services of the Special Tahasildars and the staff under then can be utilised to prepare the land records such as basic tax, Thandaper etc. straight away without further field verification.
7. After finalising the resurvey, the land records such as F.M.B., Village /Block map, basic tax register, Thandaper register, Poramboke register etc. are to be handed over to the revenue authorities for maintaining them in village and taluk offices. At present, 2 copies of field measurements sketches and only copy of other registers are prepared. The copies of block maps are printed in the Central Survey Office. Due to the constant use of the F.M.B. in field for the work corrected with the translation of resurvey records into land records and its handling at various stages, most of the sketches in the original and duplicate field measurement books have become unfit for use. It is therefore necessary that copies of these records are to be taken for supply to the Village and Taluk offices. For taking copies of these records it was suggested to purchase continuous photo copier machines so that the machines can be installed in the respective collectorate and required copies of F.M.B., basic-tax register etc. taken under the super¬vision of the Deputy Directors attached to the Collectorates. While purchasing of the photo copier machine and taking copies of the records will take time, it is also suggested that the duplicate copy or the F.M.B. and the only copy of the Basic Tax Register etc. prepared may be handed over straight away to each village office though the District Collector from an appointed date soon after finalisation of Re-Survey records. When resurvey records are handed over, the previous records available]e in the village office will be taken back by the Collector and kept in his office. The Revenue administration from the date can be carried on in the respective villages based on the resurvey records. This will help to bring the resurvey records up to date by incorporating the subsequent changes in them. As and when the photo copier machines arc purchased the records of each village can be brought to the Collectorate and copies taken for supply to Village and Taluk Offices.
8. Generally after re-survey and resettlement land holders are issued a patta showing the details of lands under each land holder. It is suggested that the patta to the land holder can be issued as and when resurvey records of each village is finalised and handed over to revenue administration. It is learnt that in the neighboring Tamilnadu State, a similar system has been introduced after formulating necessary legislation in the matter. A similar legal system of issuing patta pass books has been introduced in Gujarat State also. It is therefore suggested that when resurvey is finalised and the resurvey records given effect to in each village for revenue administration, a patta pass book showing all the details about the land can be issued to the land holders of this State also after enacting necessary legislation in this regard.
It may be seen that the resurvey of the State who originally taken up as a plan scheme during IIIrd Plan and continued during 4th, 5th and 6th plan period. The very purpose of conducting the resurvey is to prepare a land records showing the existing limits of each land holding including the persons for whom certificate of purchase, confirment of title like Kudikidappu, Kudiyiruppu etc. under the land reforms Act was made. It may therefore be seen that the land reforms in its real sense can be said to be complete only after a statutory land records for all the persons benefited by the land reforms is prepared. Apart this the preparation of land records and issue of a Patta Pass Book could also help the weaker section of society to possess a legal document in support of the lands under their possession, who are not capable of documentation.
9. From the foregoing paras it may be seen that it is only reasonable that the Resurvey Scheme which was done so far under plan is continued under plan Scheme during VIIth Plan also where it is proposed to complete the Re-Survey of the State.